New Orleans at the beginning of the 19th Century was a cultural mosaic – a curious mix of people, French and Spanish, English and German, Creole and West Indian. As a port city built on trade, many Jewish immigrants settled in New Orleans from other parts of the US, Europe, South America and the Caribbean. New Orleans first synagogue, Shanarai-Chasset, was established in 1827 and later renamed Touro Synagogue after the most famous early Jewish settler in New Orleans, Judah Touro. By the 1830s, New Orleans was one of the largest cities in the US. The numbers of Jewish merchants and businessmen grew and the creation and support of civic and religious organizations, including the Hebrew Benevolent Society and Touro Infirmary, took hold.